Q:  I coordinate M&V projects in lighting systems in public buildings. In an ideal scenario, we use option A: measurement of the key parameter, power (W) and estimation (through measurement) of time. In times of pandemic where buildings are not functioning, how to proceed?

A; Per your ideal scenario above, since the operating hours is the estimated value in the Option A M&V plan and the key parameter measurement of fixture wattage is not impacted by Covid building operation, you need to work with the project owner on the best path forward to be in alignment regarding the purpose of the M&V for this project ( ie verification of savings to support payments in a performance contract; verifying savings to support customer internal reporting; support of an utility/other program savings reporting; etc). As stated, the pandemic is resulting in the buildings to be not functioning - if the project and M&V plan baseline is still being developed, the room by room audit and the measurement of baseline fixture wattage could still be conducted however the operating hours establishment without the ability to do a sample operating hour measurement, would need to be determined based on any historical energy data available (such as via an end use analysis to determine lighting system energy contribution) in conjunction with discussion and agreement with the owner on typical historical operating hours. If the project is in post-retrofit phase, the post wattage must still be measured and the operating hours situation discussed with the owner. If the building is not functioning at all, then there must be the agreement with the owner regarding the baseline operating hours and the savings of the project based on those baseline hours and the measured baseline and post wattages - this would be what the savings would have been under those agreed operating hours and the actual measured wattages. Again, if the building is not functional at all (no lighting operating hours), the operating hours in this pandemic situation could or should be viewed as a non-routine adjustment and the savings presented under the current actual situation (zero if zero operation) and then the agreed to baseline or post operating hours used to reflect the adjustment to determine savings under the scenario of the typical building operation in the non-pandemic world. Actual savings are obviously reduced but the adjusted savings would give the indication of performance of the project in the "normal" non pandemic situation. Once the building resumes operation post-pandemic, the operating hours situation should be revisited and discussed with the owner to realign under the requirements of the project and original purpose of the M&V.